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Pearl Culture Practices in Europe

Others followed Linné, attempting to copy his process. A Scottish physician, John Hunter, reported in April 1787 in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks in London of attempts at pearl culture in a pond at Earl's Court. A remarkable and quite extensive trial project using the Linnean freshwater pearl culture method took place between 1821 and 1825 in Bavaria, when Baron von Hallberg-Broich issued the order to bring pearl mussels from Saxony, Bohemia and Sweden and to place them in the River Würm near Guating. The Baron had brought back his knowledge on pearl culture from extensive travels through other continents. A Dutchman named E. F. Kelaart also made attempts at pearl culture. He conducted them on the Ceylonese side of the Gulf of Manaar in 1859.

In the international Fisheries Exhibition of 1880 in Berlin attractive small objects were shown, which fisheries in Saxony had produced according to the Chinese freshwater pearl culture method by using flat tin figures in the shape of fish or small heads made of porcelain. Apparently, some tiny freshwater pearls that had been produced inside the mantle tissue were shown. The pearls were not attractive.

A watchmaker named Johann Nepomuk Koller from Windorf, who had leased the "Perlbach" (pearl brook) near Vilshofen in the Bavarian Forest, showed his own shells and freshwater pearls.

In the same year, the Frenchman Bouchon-Brandely experimented with Pinctada margaritifera using the Linnean methods in Tahiti. Theodor von Hessling undertook further attempts in Bavaria at the beginning of the 20th century. At the same time, a certain Vane Simonas from Cedar Rapids in Iowa experimented with river mussels. He left them spread out in the sun, and a wooden wedge was introduced into them before they were placed back into the water.